E-Mini Trading: Which Time Period Is Best for Trading the ES and YM E-Mini Contracts?

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If you would like to get a room of e-mini traders into a vociferous argument, state in a boisterous manner, that 2 minute charts are the very best for trading the ES e-mini contract. Every successful trader has a distinct preference for a certain time period when trading. These preferences are generally the result of longtime experience and success in his or her trading career. No two individuals trade in an identical manner and time period for each bar on a traders chart is a matter of personal experience. Generally speaking, I have watched traders who trade in the scalping style use 1, 2, 3, and 5 minute charts. There are advantages and disadvantages in using each time period.

As an aside, time-based charts are not the only type of trading charts in use by professional traders. There are range-based charts, Renko-style charts, point and figure charts, and tick charts, just to name a few. The study of these charts will be the object of my next few articles. For today, we are going to go over time-based charts.

Let's start at the beginning. The amount of time for each bar on a chart is at the discretion of the trader. For example, a 1 minute chart assigns exactly 1 minute for each bar on the charts. The same logic holds true for 2, 3, and 5 minute charts. Each time period shows a different perspective of the price action on the chart under observation. There are distinct advantages and disadvantages for using various time periods in your trading. For the sake of clarity, I am going to make a few assumptions about the intended reader of this article:

– You are a trader with a trading account under $ 25,000
– You are a trader who trades in the scalping style.
– Your goal is to maximize the return on your investment while preserving your capital.

Very few traders use 1 minute charts because they typically present price action at a rapid rate, which results in many false setups. I have seen traders use 1 minute charts to get a different view of the market, but generally speaking these charts are very difficult to use effectively. In my experience I have found 1 minute charts to be of little value.

On the other hand, it is fairly common to see 2 and 3 minute charts on the majority of most traders who trade in the scalping style. For me personally, I prefer to use 2 minute charts when trading the YM contract. I do this for several reasons. The YM contract is often a slower moving contract than the ES contract and has considerably less volume, so I find a 2 minute gives me a more accurate view of the price action. Also, the YM contract is dominated by smaller traders and less dramatic price movement. The ES contract is a far different animal than the YM contract; it is a high volume e-mini contract that is loaded with professional traders and sophisticated trading technology. For these reasons, I use a 3 minute chart to slow the action down some and give myself time to get a better read on what is actually occurring on the chart. On certain days, especially very active days, I will use a 5 minute to provide even greater clarity. On days when I am having trouble getting a good read on the market action, it is not unusual for me to switch intermittently between 3 and 5 minute charts in an attempt to ascertain which time period is most beneficial in spotting setups.

In general, larger accounts tend to concentrate on 5 minute charts, as they provide excellent clarity and spotting training and consolidating markets. The reason large traders typically trade higher number time charts is they have deeper pockets and can withstand greater moves against their positions. As a smaller scalper, we tend to have shorter stop loss limits and tighter management on our trades. For that reason, smaller traders tend to trade 2 and 3 minute charts. Smaller traders simply do not have deep enough pockets to allow them the time it takes for broader market moves to develop. As a side note, institutional traders often trade 15 minute charts, as they have a nearly unlimited amount of capital to back their trades, and these traders are generally not scalpers but swing traders and trade broad trends as opposed to scalping 2 or 3 point points out of a trend.

In summary, we have looked at a variety of time periods that traders utilize in set up analysis when trading the e-mini contracts. I believe very short time periods do not provide the smaller trader with a very accurate view of the market; the short periods tend to indicate to many false setups. I also stated that the midrange time periods (2 and 3 min.) Provide an excellent insight into trading setups, and suggested that, at times, 5 minute charts can be helpful to the smaller trader or scalper. Finally, I have pointed out that large trading institutions often use 15 minute charts in their trading as they are generally looking at broader trends in the market. As a trader, experiment with different time periods and find which time period resonates most effectively for you on the YM and ES e-mini contracts.

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Source by David S. Adams

Multicultural Leadership

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In an expanding global and diverse economy, where a mix of races and culture exists – how well we lead and create opportunities amongst diverse communities' results in how well the community thrives. Leadership is the process in which one person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization to accomplish a common task. It is one of the most relevant and important aspects of the organizational context. A leader must be trustworthy and should be able to communicate a vision – "where the company needs to go".

With globalization the world is growing closer and more and more companies are employing people of every nationality, age and race. With diversity in the workforce there not only has to be a change in our leadership style but also in our approach towards both internal and external customers.

In case of external customers – Multicultural marketing helps businesses plan marketing strategically, focusing on the how to reach the customer effectively, by studying his behaviour. This requires an understanding of the customer's psychology as to why he wants to buy a particular product. Each client is unique, so you need to understand the lifestyle, culture and the environment of the group the business is targeting. The marketing, the ad campaign, the slogans all have to be client sensitive if you want the client to buy your product. So for all this you need to understand the local market and then set out the marketing programme.

Diversity within the internal workforce means that to make a business a success, we not only need to incorporate different practices and values ​​but also treat cultures respectfully.

What does a Multicultural leadership involve?

o A multicultural leadership does not focus on an individual. It believes in a mutual relationship. The focus is on welfare, unity and harmony.
o People should work for a group success before personal gain.
o Act socially, interact politely and respect others.
o It involves working together as a team towards the success of the company.
o A multicultural leader thinks the best for its employee regardless of the cultural or ethnic background.
o The leader should consider himself just another part of the team or the organization and not as a superior. Stop the "you are the boss system".
o Each individual is unique despite outer similarities. Successful businesses are those that learn to accept the small differences that make us human and work together for the greater good of the organization.
o In a multicultural leadership to minimize a conflict the employees are reminded very often that we all are one family working together. This makes the employee fell responsible towards the company
o Allowing everyone to share their spiritual beliefs with one another and providing the freedom to the employee to accept which ever belief they like. This sometimes helps the employees to bond together spiritually and work together for the company goals
o Develop a company's vision; share the ideas, thoughts, and suggestions of all the employees. The leader makes them feel a part of the system and drives them to work more efficiently for the company.

Leadership in a multicultural organisation has some benefits and helps to:

o Understand and embrace diversity for a more enjoyable place of work.
o Handle multicultural customers better.
o Create a healthy working environment for more efficiency.
o Do better localized business

However, before embracing a multicultural leadership, clarity is required on why you would want to change the leadership style and why do you think this model will work better than the older Eurocentric model?

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Source by Javier Palomarez

Top 10 Films About Contemporary Art

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Visiting art galleries and reading art magazines and books is great. But sometimes you just want to lie on your sofa with a cup of tea and relax watching a good movie. Now that it's winter, you might feel this desire more often. A movie can be an art form and when it is a movie about great artists and art, it's like watching 'art squared', so to speak. So do not miss out, give it a try – you will not be sorry.

Here is a list of movies about contemporary art to get you started. Some are old, some new, but all are really inspiring. I have listed the movies alphabetically, and I have not given any of them a personal rating since as far as I'm concerned, all of them are worth watching. This is just to inspire you to watch these films, and perhaps move on to others afterwards.

Art School Confidential
Who said anything about talent?
IMDb rating: 6.3
Director: Terry Zwigoff
Production year: 2006
This movie is a comedy rather than drama, and it focuses on the story of an art student who had spent all his life dreaming about being a great artist. Although the film makes fun of the contemporary art world in many respect, it also shows its attractive side, and gives an idea of ​​the dedication artists can feel to their work.

Basquiat
In 1981, A Nineteen-Year-Old Unknown Graffiti Writer Took the New York Art World by Storm. The Rest Is Art History
IMDb rating: 6.8
Director: Julian Schnabel
Production year: 1996
This is an absolutely unforgettable movie about American street artist Jean-Michel Basquiat. It gives you a deep view of Basquiat's world, his life, friends, love and works. Julian Schnabel is an artist himself, and so has personal experience of the world he's looking into, something that adds an unusual and meaningful level of validity to the movie.

Exit Through the Gift Shop
The incredible true story of how the world's greatest Street Art movie was never made …
IMDb rating: 8.2
Director: Banksy
Production year: 2010
It is brilliant movie, which keeps you guessing and puzzling right through to the end. At first sight you may think that the film is about street art documentary filmmaker Thierry Guetta, but actually it is about world famous graffiti artist Banksy. I won`t be surprised if after watching this film you want to hit the streets with a spray can.

Factory Girl
When Andy met Edie, life imitated art
IMDb rating: 6.1
Director: George Hickenlooper
Production year: 2006
Although the movie is dedicated to the life of underground film star Edie Sedgwick, and this aspect of it is certainly interesting, much of the appeal comes from his explored relationship with Andy Warhol. Watching the movie will give you the a fairly comprehensive impression of the Factory, a place where artists of any genre met and created what became a game-changing part of modern art.

Frida
Prepare to be seduced
IMDb rating: 7.3
Director: Julie Taymor
Production year: 2002
This is a fantastic biographical story about the life and work of an extraordinary and immensely strong woman, the well-known Mexican artist Frida Kahlo. The film is like her works: colorful, full of love, powerful and unique.

Fur: ​​An Imaginary Portrait of Diane Arbus
IMDb rating: 6.2
Director: Steven Shainberg
Production year: 2006
This is a sincere look at the iconic American photographer Diane Arbus and her real love for Lionel Sweeney, who helped her to become an artist who came to help define photography in the twentieth century.

The Great Contemporary Art Bubble
IMDb rating: 7.3
Director: Ben Lewis
Production year: 2009
This is an extremely interesting BBC production, by a UK art critic, Ben Lewis. It will take you on a journey into the contemporary art world, with all its secrets. You will visit world famous auction houses and galleries, and even the homes of art collectors.

How to Draw a Bunny
IMDb rating: 7.2
Director: John W. Walter
Production year: 2002
This is a documentary about Ray Johnson, who has been called "New York's most famous unknown artist," and is about the mysteries of his life and art, and of course his influence on the Pop Art world.

My Left Foot
A film about life, laughter, and the occasional miracle
IMDb rating: 7.8
Director: Jim Sheridan
Production year: 1989
This is based on the fantastic true story of Christy Brown, painter and author, who could control only his left foot. It is the only film in this list that won 5 Academy Awards, – Best Actor (Daniel Day-Lewis), Best Supporting Actress (Brenda Fricker), Best Director (Jim Sheridan), Best Picture and Best Screenplay (Shane Connaughton and Jim Sheridan ). With that recommendation, how can you fail to give it a go?

Pollok
I thought I knew all the outstanding artists in New York and I don`t know Jackson Pollock
IMDb rating: 7.1
Director: Ed Harris
Production year: 2000
Wonderful movie about world famous American painter Jackson Pollock. This film demonstrates his great talent and difficult nature, and the way he tried to combine the two.

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Source by Alice M Shown

How to Memorize a Map Easily

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When it comes to memorizing, one of the hardest items to memorize are maps simply because it involves memorizing both words and images. Indeed, there are many people who want to know how to memorize a map easily. The problem with memorizing maps is that you must be able to capture an accurate mental picture of it or else you will not be able to locate the place that you are looking for and you will most likely get lost. There are proven methods though that can help you memorize maps. And if you will simply follow these methods then you can easily place a mental picture of any map in your head and recall it at will.

One of the first things that you should do when memorizing a map is to break it down into small parts. As the saying goes, the only way to eat an elephant is to eat it piece by piece and that is also the best way to remember the details of a visual representation of a city or a town. The next step is try to connect the names of the streets with a certain landmark of the place. The reason why it is hard to remember street names is because they lack relevance. If you assign a landmark to a street, then that street will instantly gain relevance. Lastly, create a mental picture of street names. Pictures are much easier to remember than mere words.

Now that you now know how to memorize a map, you can now venture into any place without the fear of getting lost.

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Source by Jack Travels

Candlesticks Versus Range and Renko Bars – Which Is the Best for E-Mini Trading?

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I have never fully understood the relationship between time periods and E-mini trading. After all, time is an arbitrary measurement established by humankind and does not tell me much about price action or potential price movement. I realize that I am in the minority in this view, which is nothing new for me; on the other hand, if you really want to focus on price action why not use bars that are designed to do just that?

Candlesticks are noisy and hard to interpret and I have many e-mini trading students struggle trading the darn things. We tend to set specific time periods to measure price action and make specific decisions based upon the price action that occurs during that time period. This seems counterintuitive to me, as the market does not trade with 3 minute, 5 minute, or 15 minute increments. Price action is an ongoing and evolving variable that changes throughout the course of the day. I am interested in pure price action; and I am not interested in all the noisy machinations that are trading "background noise." When trading candlesticks you get the whole package; price movement and all the accompanying background noise.

Renko and range bars form without benefit of any time constraints; they simply express exactly what the price is doing at a given point of time during the trading day. Renko bars have their origin in Japanese trading and are solely concerned with price action; there is no time constraint on how long it takes a 4 Renko bar to form. It only forms when the market moves 4 ticks in the same direction. 4 Range bars form within price action moves four ticks in any direction. That being said, non-time related bars are especially useful for support and resistance traders as these levels are easily seen because of the nature of Renko bar movement.

There are a number of variations of Renko bars besides the traditional "bricks" used in traditional bar trading. I personally prefer the "Better Renko" bars because they clearly indicate the range of a given bar during its formation. More recently "UniRenko bars" have made their appearance; these bars are similar to Better Renko bars but they use an averaging system that is similar to Heiken-Ashi bars. I have had great success with Heiken-Ashi trading during trending markets but they can be a little tricky in a sideways market. For that reason alone, I stick with the Better Renko bars and have done so for the past six years.

Candlesticks on the other hand have their uses, but you have to contend with a great deal of market noise interpretation and I have found this is the realm of the most experienced traders. I start off my new traders with price action oriented bars with great success.

Have you used Better Renko bars? You might read up on them and identify the advantages and disadvantages they may have over traditional candlestick bars. They're not for everybody, but they are for me.

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Source by David S. Adams

Herpes and Relationships – Like Peanut Butter and Pickles?

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Many people who have contracted genital herpes buy into the mythological view that they are now part of a tiny, shunned fragment of society. It is all too easy to believe that having both genital herpes and relationships with others (romantically, at least) is no longer possible.

If this is your mindset, it is helpful to remember that between 20-25% of the adult population in North American currently has genital herpes. This means that you could throw a pebble into a crowd on the busiest street in your city and have a pretty good chance of hitting someone who has it.

Of course, having herpes and relationships with others is made more complicated by the fact that nobody is willing to come right out and mention their condition when they first meet someone new. The truth is that most people do not have the iron resilience to deal with someone who reacts very badly to the news, someone who has not contracted genital herpes themselves (or does not know they have).

Because of this, the modern way to have both herpes and relationships with others is through online dating. There are specific sites that cater to people who have contracted an std – and do not want the hassle and humiliation of telling every potential mate.

Now you may not want to talk or think about herpes anymore, or you may be at a stage where you want more knowledge and understanding. With a herpes dating site, you could get either: finding someone else who already has herpes takes you both past the point of needing to talk about it or disclose it, or you may use a herpes dating site as a support group to gain more information or share experiences.

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Source by DG Gordon

Bikinis for Wide Hips

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Hips are in, the curvaceous figure is back in style and wide hips are what it's all about, so read on, were going to give you some ideas on what kind of bikini looks best for women with wider hips.

A woman with a thicker torso has more options believe it or not when it comes to bikinis than a skinny torso, the reason for this is that fashion styles are changing and the movement in the fashion industry is a heavier, healthier look.

One of our favorites when it comes to bikinis for wide hips is the scoop front bikini. The scoop front style of bikini bottoms does two things, it elongates and smooth's the torso and the scoop front tends to give depth and further elongate the mid-section from the frontal view. For these two reasons, the scoop front bikini is by far our favorite recommendation when it comes to bikinis for wide hips. This scoop front bikini bottom will smooth and accentuate your curves and give your torso that perfect bikini look.

The next option is simply the string bikini bottom. Back in the 60's when the bikini was making its debut, string bikinis were the rage and women with hips were the model of choice. The string bikini allows the hips to flow, it tends to draw attention away from the hip area and draw more attention to the complete body and is not that really what the idea of ​​a bikini is all about, to admire the full package and not focus on one area.

Bikinis with straps have become very popular on fashion runways around the world. As the fashion industry changes and the more curvaceous women is desired the bikini with straps is gaining a great deal of focus from beach goers around the world. The multiple strap bikini is a perfect choice when looking for bikinis for wide hips. The multiple straps will tend to draw attention to the style and not the area. Typically the bikini with multiple straps will cover more of the hip area for a more polished finished appearance.

If you are looking for more coverage than the vintage style bikini is on the comeback. The late 50's design of bikini is on a comeback and is really gaining ground in the Hollywood celebrity ring. These bikinis are great when it comes to designer bikinis for wide hips, they tend to ride high on the waist line and five full coverage. Many have control panels built in for a little extra tummy control if desired.

Tankini Bikinis are the rage for all body types at the moment mostly driven by the need for less sun exposure but the styles, colors and patterns are incredibly diverse and sexy. The tankini bikini offers full coverage for the woman that simply wants to keep things under cover. Many women today are still uncomfortable with their hip area and prefer to keep a more conservative look. This is unfortunate especially with the way the desired optimum bikini body is changing to a curvier look, but the tankini is an excellent choice in any case.

One of the latest fashion bikinis is the shaping bikini. These bikinis offer a scoop front design but the scoop I in more of a "V" shape. With the V front offset by a wider waist band, this bikini gives an incredible slimming appearance that no other bikini offers. This bikini by design is made for women with a wider hip area and thicker thighs. The shaper bikini is stunning by nature and is a perfect choice for women with a thicker torso.

Skirted bikinis are again more of a coverage type of bikini style for the more conservative woman, but are incredibly sexy and are quite versatile. You can go from sipping drinks by the pool at happy hour to walking down the street in the local town window shopping. Again as with Tankinis, they come in a wide range of styles, colors and patterns.

Finally for the really outgoing were going to mention the thong or g string bikini. Take note, the thong and g string bikini were originally designed for the woman that had hips. It not only draws attention away from the hip area, but in most cases it completely eliminates the traditional wider hip appearance and gives a more balanced look.

It's all about purchasing the right bikini bottom and the correct top to balance out your body type.

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Source by Roni Joy

The Benefits of Brochure Marketing

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Brochures provide countless uses for businesses across the spectrum. Used as a support for other forms of marketing, the brochure provides a great explanation of what your business offers, while also allowing you to effectively communicate your message.

Portable Salesman – Thinking of your brochure as your marketing associate will allow you to sell your services whenever and wherever your prospect is. By having it with them, the prospect can view it on their own time. By viewing it on their own time, people will be most likely to listen to it and hearing what you have to say.

Ease of distribution – Brochures are easy to distribute. Most can be folded into standard mailing sizes to be sent alone, or can be included as a complete sales packet. They also can be handed out on the street, left in doctor's offices, heavily trafficked street corners, etc.

Credibility – They add an extra layer of credibility. Used in conjunction with other marketing efforts, they expand your branding showing that you are more than just a letterhead and business card. Brochures give the perfect opportunity to let your prospects know how long you've been in business, the benefits of using your services, and the amount of experience you have.

Customization – With brochure printing costs on the decline, many businesses find benefit in creating tailored brochures for each demographic. This helps in providing enhanced customization, and allow the prospect to feel as though they are a valued potential client.

Direct Mail – Brochure mailing is a huge industry and for a good reason. Mailing brochures to a targeted list of prospects is a great way to gain business. These brochures can be "self-mailed" which means they are simply folded and "tabbed", sticky round pads applied to the opening of the fold, and addressed to the recipients. The other option, more costly but more personal, is to have brochures placed inside envelopes. These are great options for luxury items or services where personalization goes a long way.

Branding – Like any other marketing piece in your company, keeping consistent branding is critical. People hold brochures for extended periods of time, they feel them and touch them, read them and keep them at their desk. Making sure your brochure is well branded will go a long way in pushing your brand into your target market.

Brochures will and always will be one of the most popular forms of marketing. With multiple size, shape and customization options, brochures continue to inform prospects around the world.

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Source by Melanie C Turner

Pedophile – Characteristics and Behavior Patterns

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o In spite of increased reporting most people imagine a child molester as some ugly, old or deranged man in a trench coat coaxing children to come to him in exchange for some candy. They do not think of Uncle Gus or Aunt Milly, the neighbor next door, the friendly clergy person, or trusted family friend. They do not think of mom, dad, cousins, siblings, grandparents or in the case of single parents, their significant other. These misconceptions are the only reason sex offenders can continue to sexually abuse children.

o The widespread misconception that child molestation consists primarily of children being seized from the street and forcibly molested is the lowest incidence of child sexual assault Although these incidents do occur, 99% of child sexual abuse survivors know their assailant, who uses their status and knowledge of the child to intimidate and persuade the child into submission and compliance.

o The most common response when I speak about the prevalence of sexual child abuse is in the form of denial: "I do not have to be concerned about that in my community. That would never happen in my family."

o Through numerous case studies, the Department of Justice has developed characteristics and behavior patterns of a pedophile. These characteristics and behavior patterns include, but are not limited to the following:

Is most often an adult male – 80% of children are sexually abused by family members – the father is the most prevalent followed by uncle or grandparent and step-father or significant other.

It is usually married.

Works in a wide range of occupations, from unskilled laborer, corporate executive, doctor, lawyer, judge or clergy.

Relates better to children than adults.

Socializes with few adults unless they are pedophiles.

Usually prefers children in a specific age group.

Usually prefers either males or females, but may be bi-sexual.

May seek employment or volunteer with programs involving children of the age of his / her preference.

Pursues children for sexual purposes.

Frequently photographs or collects photographs of his victims, either dressed, nude, or in sexually explicit acts.

Collects child erotica and child-adult pornography:

To lower the inhibitions of victims.

To fantasize when no potential victim is available.

To relive his sexual activities.

To justify his activities. (The depiction of others engaged in these acts legitimizes them in the pedophile's mind.)

To blackmail victims to keep them from telling.

May possess and furnish narcotics to his / her victims to lower their inhibitions.

Sometimes recognizes that he / she is acting inappropriately and understands the severity of it, but is unable to stop him / herself because it is a compulsion.

Goes to great lengths to conceal his illegal activity.

Goes to great lengths to present him / herself as an exemplary person; developing a persona of goodness above reproach, thus thwarting any suspicion of wrongdoing –especially against a child, whom they have judicially professed great care and concern. Michael Jackson is society's emperor with no clothes.

Rationalizes his / her illicit activities, emphasizing his / her positive impact upon the victim and repressing feelings about the harm he / she has done.

Often portrays the child as the aggressor. This usually occurs after the child realizes that by withholding "sexual favors" the child will obtain what he / she desires, such as new toys, clothing, or trips. Joey Buttafuoco, the Long Island body shop owner who gained notoriety in the 1990's when his teenage victim shot his wife; used the 'blame the victim' defense that she would not leave him alone, as if she were the adult and he a minor.

Talks about children as one would talk about an adult lover or spouse.

More often than not, sex offenders are child molestation survivors; frequently seeks out children at the age or stage of physical development at which he / she was molested.

Often seeks out publications and organizations that support his / her sexual beliefs and practices.

Usually corresponds with other pedophiles and exchanges child pornography and erotica as proof of involvement.

Is usually non-violent and has few problems with the law (pedophiles are more often than not respected community members).

To protect children from sexual abuse parents / adults need to know: What sexual abuse or incest is; What to do; and How to teach self-protection. Self-protection offers a direct and effective way to empower children to help themselves. Since the perpetrator cunningly and with forethought sets the stage to perpetrate this crime in secrecy, who is better able than the child to protect him / herself. Sex offenders say they can sense a child to victimize; they sense this by the child's demeanor, body language and facial expressions. Sex offenders choose victims who they assume will keep the secret. No child needs to fall prey to these cunning predators. If I'd Only Known … Sexual Abuse in or out of the Family: A Guide to Prevention is the one book every parent / caretaker needs to keep children safe. This book describes Seven compelling parent approved and child tested techniques to thwart would-be sex offenders.

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Source by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD

Mobsters – The Cotton Club

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THE BLACKS WERE ON THE STAGE.

THE WHITES WERE AT THE TABLES.

THE MOBSTERS WERE BEHIND THE SCENES.

AND SOMEHOW THE MAGIC TOUCHED THEM ALL – Jim Haskins – "The Cotton Club."

In the 1890's, Harlem was the land speculator's dream. The elevated railroad lines that had been extended to 129th Street in Manhattan, had transformed the area from the hinterlands to what was called "The Great Migration."

At the time, black families lived mostly in the area between Thirty-Seventh Streets and Fifty-Eight Streets, between Eighth and Ninth Avenues. The upper crust of society viewed Harlem as the next step for the upwardly mobile, and as a result, splendorous townhouses costing thousands more than comparables downtown, were being built as fast as the Harlem land could be purchased by the land speculators.

By 1905, the bottom of the Harlem real estate market fell though the floor. The land speculators were forced to face the fact that the townhouse had been built too quick, and that the prices were far above what the people were prepared to pay for them.

On the verge of bankruptcy, the land speculators used tactics that today would be illegal. They decided to rent their buildings to black tenants, far above what they would charge white tenants. Then, in a frenzy to recapture their losses, the land speculators approached white building owners and told them if they did not purchase vacant buildings they would rent them out exclusively to blacks, thereby reducing the value of the white landowner's properties. The white landowners did not bite, so the land speculators made good on their promises. Whites began moving out of Harlem in droves, replaced by black families who had never lived in such a fine neighborhood before. Black churches followed their congregations from the slums of Manhattan to the splendor of Harlem, and by the early 1920's, Harlem was the largest black community in the United States.

However, most blacks could not afford the high rents charged by the white building owners, so they took in tenants, causing two and sometimes three families to live in a one, or two-bedroom apartment. Coinciding with the overcrowding of Harlem, came the influx of illegal enterprises, such as numbers runners, houses of prostitution, and drug dealers. This was counteracted somewhat when prosperous blacks, mostly in the entertainment business, decided Harlem was where they could showcase their talents in a neighborhood filled with people of their own race. Fritz Pollard, noted All-American football player, who made his money in the real estate, moved to Harlem, as did fellow All-America football player Paul Robeson – destined to hone an outstanding career acting and singing on stage. They were quickly followed by famous singers like Ethel Walters and Florance Mills, and Harlem was ready for a renaissance equal to that of the glowing White Way on Broadway.

However, when there was money to be made, white gangsters like Dutch Schultz and Owney "The Killer" Madden were ready to jump in and take the profits, by force if necessary, which is the way they did business anyway. Schultz muscled his way into the Harlem numbers business, chasing out such black notables as Madam Stephanie St. Claire and Caspar Holstein. And during the height of Prohibition, Madden had his eyes on the perfect place to sell his bootleg booze: The Club Deluxe on 142nd Street and Lenox Avenue.

The Club Deluxe was owned by former world heavyweight champion Jack Johnson, the first black heavyweight champion of the world. Whereas, Johnson was proficient with his fists, Madden and his formidable crew were good with guns, knives, and bats. A few choice words, backed with the threat of violence, with few meager bucks thrown in, and Johnson handed over Club Deluxe to Madden and his partner / manager George "Big Frenchy" DeMange. The two gangsters renamed it The Cotton Club.

Not to totally insult a black man with the prestige of Johnson, Madden threw Johnson a bone, and let him hang around the joint, resplendent in a tuxedo. Johnson would smile and tell everyone who asked that he was the assistant manager under DeMange.

To understand why such a great heavyweight boxer like Johnson would cower before Madden, who was barely five-foot-five-inches and 140 pounds after a huge dinner, one would have to be made aware of Madden's background.

Owen "Owney" Madden was born at 25 Somerset Street, in Leeds, England, on December 18, 1891. In need of work, his father moved the Madden family to Liverpool. In 1903, when young Madden was only 12, his father died, and his mother re-located her family to America, settling on the West Side of Manhattan, in a neighborhood called "Hells Kitchen."

Madden fell in with a boisterous gang known as the Gophers. He became proficient in the favored crimes of the era: robberies, muggings, and labor racket beatings. In order to hurt and intimidate, Madden's favorite weapon was a lead pipe, wrapped in newspaper.

Madden made a ton of money in a racket called the "insurance business." As the president of his own "insurance company," Madden would visit the local establishments and tell the business owners that the owner needed "bomb insurance," in case foreigners, or maybe even Madden himself, decided to bomb the businessman's store. The business owners caught wind quick, and paid Madden what he demanded. If they did not pay Madden, that's businessman's stores would go up in flames and debris in a matter of days, and sometimes even hours. While Madden was a member of the Gophers, and making tons of money in his "insurance business," he was arrested 44 times, but not once did he ever go to prison.

When Madden was 17, he earned his nickname "The Killer." A poor Italian immigrant did nothing wrong, except cross paths with Madden on a street in Hell's Kitchen. In front of a crowd of his fellow Gophers, and whomever else was standing on the street that day, Madden pulled out a gun and shot the Italian dead. Then Madden stood over the dead body and announced to the assembled crowd, "I'm Owney Madden!"

By the time he was 23, Madden had at least five other murders to his credit. Hence the nickname – "The Killer."

However, Madden thought he was bulletproof, until November 6th, 1912, at the Arbor Dance Hall, which was in the heart of the territory controlled by the Gopher's rivals: the Hudson Dusters. Madden strolled into the hall by himself, like he had nary a care in the world, during a dance given by the Dave Hyson Association. Madden was watching the proceedings from the balcony, when eleven Hudson Dusters surrounded him and shot Madden six times. Madden was rushed to the hospital, where a detective asked Madden who had shot him.

"Nothin 'doin,'" Madden said. "It's no business but mine who put these slugs into me. My boys will get them."

By the time Madden was released from the hospital, six of his eleven assailants had already been shot dead.

While Madden was recuperating from his wounds, one of his fellow Gophers, Little Patsy Doyle, figured he'd take control of Madden's gang. Doyle was also intent on taking back his former girlfriend, Freda Horner, who now was the sole property of Madden. Miss Horner told Madden about Doyle's intentions, and as a result, Madden told Miss Horner to tell Doyle she would be glad to meet him for a date at a saloon on Eighth Avenue and 41st Street. When Doyle arrived, dressed to the nines and all smiles, two of Madden's gunmen shot Doyle dead.

Being the obvious suspect, Madden was arrested three days later for the murder of Little Patsy Doyle. At Madden's trial, he was shocked to discover that Miss Horner had betrayed him too. Miss Horner testified in court that it was Madden who had set up the Doyle murder. As a result, Madden was convicted and sentenced to 10-20 years in Sing Sing Prison. He did only eight years, and was released in 1923, just in time to strong-arm Jack Johnson into selling him the Club Deluxe, aka- The Cotton Club. By this time Madden was big into bootlegging with his partner Big Bill Dwyer, and the Cotton Club was the perfect place to sell their illegal hootch, especially their famous Madden No. 1 beer, which was considered the best brew in New York City. They took in a legitimate guy named Herman Stark as their front man / partner / stage manager, but the show within the show was completely run by Madden and DeMange.

According to Jim Haskins book The Cotton Club, when Madden and DeMange took over the joint they redid the entire interior "to cater to the white downtowner's taste for the primitive." The club was made over in "jungle decor," with numerous artificial palm trees dotted throughout the spacious establishment, which had seating for 700 people. The most exquisite draperies, tablecloths, and fixtures were purchased, indicating this was a "plush late-night supper club," and the exorbitant prices highlighted that fact. The menu was varied. Besides the traditional steaks and chops, the Cotton Club cooks drummed up Chinese and Mexican dishes, as well as "Harlem" cuisine like fried chicken and barbecued spareribs.

DeMange presided over the front door like a tyrant. One rule was perfectly clear. Although the waiters, busboys, bartenders, cooks, service personnel, and performers were all black, no black people were allowed inside as customers. (The name itself – The Cotton Club – came from the light brown color of undyed cotton.) The chorus girls had to be "tall, tan, and terrific" which meant that they had to be at least 5-feet-6- inches tall, light skinned, and no older than twenty-one. The girls also had to be expert dancers, and at least be able to carry a tune. For some unknown reason, there was no color-shade restriction on the black male dancers, who were all proficient in "high-stepping, gyrating and snake-dancing."

To show how strict Madden and DeMange were about their policy of segregation, about a month before their second grand opening, (The Cotton Club was closed by Prohibition agents for a while, ever though the local cops were on the pad), the following job interview took place. Present were Madden and DeMange, along with their choreographer Althea Fuller, and their orchestra conductor Andy Preer. The girl being interviewed was Queenie Duchamp.

DeMange to Madden: Boss, when is the club going to be ready to open?

Madden: The pigs will not cause us trouble for a time. They know if we're forced to close for bootlegging they will not get their bonuses. As it is, they're missing the extra padding and the boys have been complaining to the Sarge. Yeah, they've learned their lesson. As for the club's show … let's ask Althea and Andy.

DeMange to Preer: Andy, how's the pit? Ready for next month's opening?

Preer: We will be. If Althea gets her girls ready, the pit is ready to stomp.

Althea Fuller: Boss, we had a setback. One of the girls went and found a "moral conscience." She's following her sister, a Garveyite, back to Africa. Shame, she was a looker in the front line. Do not worry, Boss, I've already got replacements ready to audition for you today. One of them looks promising and comes with a recommendation. She's in the front row, third one in … Queenie Duchamp. First, let's see if she can remember the steps she was taught this morning.

(Andy Preer leads the orchestra in "I've Found a New Baby" and 5 dancing girls audition. Queenie Duchamp is third from the left.)

Madden: Keep the third and the fifth. The other girls are too dark and short. Althea, make sure you grill them about rules and rehearsals. We are NOT running a gut bucket operation here.

(Madden leaves with his bodyguards)

Fuller: Queenie, come here. You got the job on a few conditions.

Queenie: Anything you want Miss Fuller.

Fuller: Number one – No booze, No boys, No drugs. No exceptions.

Queenie: Yes, Miss.

Fuller: Number two- Rehearsals are Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday starting at 1:00 pm sharp. All rehearsals are MANDATORY and lateness will not be accepted. I do not know what you've heard, but rehearsals here are grueling and performances are long with many elaborate costume changes. That means you can not afford to be draggin 'your ass around here. Make sure you eat and get your rest. Do you understand?

Queenie: Yes, Miss Fuller.

Fuller: Number three – No mixing with the patrons. There are about 700 whitefolk that walk through those doors every night. And according to Mr. Madden, they only have one goal here and that's to spend money. They come here to hear the best Negro music and dance numbers in the city. They might act like they want to be your friend after a couple of drinks, but they do not. Mr. Madden does not want the races mixin 'and as far as I'm concerned, I think that's better for business anyway.

DeMange: If a white customer starts to give you a problem or tries to make a connection with you, tell me. I'll take care of it. It's happened before. Sometimes these rich people get a couple drinks in them and they think they own the world. Do not worry about it, just let me know. We run a tight ship here.

Queenie: Yes, Mr. DeMange. No problem Ms. Fuller. I am an entertainer and I understand the importance of practice. In fact, I'm a singer, a blues singer! If you ever need a singer ….. (Ms. Fuller and Mr. DeMange look at each other.)

Fuller: Look, missy. Your goal here is to dance, smile and follow the rules … not sing. Got it?

Queenie: Yes, Miss Fuller. Got it.

Fuller: Another thing … stay out of trouble. You're a looker and the club world can be dirty and dangerous. It does not have to be though. Keep to yourself and whatever you do, stay out of Mr. Madden's way. If you do this, you'll be fine. Now go to wardrobe for a fitting.

Queenie: Yes and Thank you, Miss Fuller.

The Cotton Club was an immediate success with the downtown swells. On opening night, the Fletcher Henderson band entertained the crowd (Henderson's band was the house band until June 1931). Through radio broadcasts originating nightly from the Cotton Club, Henderson's band was such a success, he became one of the most sought after band leaders in America. Following Henderson was the Duke Ellington Band (until 1934), and then Cab Calloway and the Cotton Club Orchestra.

Despite the fact the only booze served on the premises was Madden's No. 1 beer, customers were allowed, even encouraged, to bring their own booze they had obtained illegally elsewhere. Of course, the management had a hefty set-up charge, which included the glasses, ice, and the mixers. If a customer came unprepared and still wanted booze instead of beer, the doorman, and sometimes even a waiter, came in handy. A bottle of champagne could cost a customer $ 30, and a bottle of scotch – $ 18, a kingly sum in those days. But the customers were well-healed, and nobody ever gripped about the prices; at least, nobody who cared about their continued good health.

After a while, DeMange and Madden lightened up a bit on the "no-black-customers-allowed" policy. This happened in 1932, right after WC Handy, known as "The King of the Blues," was denied admission, even though the Duke Ellington Band was inside playing songs that Handy had written. Ellington pleaded his case to Madden, and Madden agreed to loosen his policy. But just a little bit.

Light-skinned blacks were now allowed in as customers, and a few darker blacks, who were famous entertainers themselves. However, blacks in mixed parties was a definite no-no.

Writer and photographer Carl Van Vechten wrote, "There were brutes at the door to enforce the Cotton Club's policy which was opposed to mixed parties."

Jim Haskins wrote in The Cotton Club, "Only the lightest-complexioned Negroes gained entrance, and even they were carefully screened. The club's management was aware that most white downtowners wanted to observe Harlem blacks, not with mix with them."

Even famed comedian Jimmy Durante displayed blatant racism when he said, "It is not necessary to mix with colored people if you do not feel like it. You have your own party and keep to yourself. But it's worth seeing. How they step ! "

Durante went as far as to intimate that blacks were innately more violent than whites. "Racial lines are drawn here to prevent possible trouble," Durante said. "Nobody wants razors, blackjacks or fists flying. And the chances of war are less if there's no mixing."

In 1933, after he settled a little problem with the IRS, and with Prohibition now over, Madden decided to call it a day. He handed over the reigns of the Cotton Club to DeMange, and hightailed it to Hot Springs, Arkansas, where he opened a hotel / spa, which became the favorite hideout for New York mobsters on the lam from the law. In fact, when New York Mafioso Lucky Luciano was in hiding, because a bulldog special prosecutor named Thomas E. Dewey had a warrant for Luciano's arrest on a trumped-up prostitution charge, it was at Madden's resort where Luciano was finally arrested after four months on the run.

Of course, Madden was still a silent partner with DeMange in the Cotton Club, but the huge profits would soon diminish, before coming to a halt in Harlem.

It started with the Great Depression, which had cut down dramatically on the disposable income of the rich, and the formerly rich. Downtown revelers who had frequented the Cotton Club came less often, and when they did come, they spent less money. These same revelers got caught up in the street gang mentality, and as a result, an avalanches of bullets stared flying in Harlem; whites shooting blacks, blacks shooting whites, and members of the same race slinging shots at each other. With so much lead zinging though the Harlem air, white-oriented Harlem clubs like the Cotton Club suffered a dramatic decrease in attendance.

In addition, no area of ​​America was affected more by the Depression than Harlem. By 1934, according to the New York Urban League, more than 80% of Harlem residents were on "Home Relief," which we now call Welfare. The Reverend Adam Clayton Powell fanned the flames of racial tensions when he started leading boycotts of white-owned stores in Harlem, in order to force them to hire more black workers. Despair and resentment sprung up in the streets of Harlem, and this lead to a fateful day in Harlem history.

A dark-skinned, 16-year-old Puerto Rican named Lino Rivera was sulking around the streets of Harlem, out of work and desperately looking for a job; any job. To pass the time, he took in a movie, then went to the Kress Department Store on 125th Street. There he spotted a knife he wanted. But the knife cost ten cents and Rivera did not have ten cents. Rivera had just snatched the knife and put it into his pocket, when a male employee of the store grabbed Rivera, and a scuffle ensued. While the two men were battling and another white employee tried to subdue Rivera, a crowd of black shoppers surrounded the fight, obviously favoring Rivera. During the melee, Rivera bit the thumb of one of the white employees. The injured man shouted, "I'm going to take you down to the basement and beat the hell out of you."

Big mistake.

Within minutes, the rumor had spread on the streets of Harlem that two white men were beating a black boy to death. This false rumor received dubious confirmation, when a blaring ambulance pulled up in front of the Kress Department Store. It made no difference the ambulance was there for the white man who had the severely bitten finger.

That night the streets of Harlem erupted in total bedlam. Born out of resentment of the Depression, and the dismal way white people had been treating black people in Harlem for years, hundred of blacks rioted in the streets. They looted white-owned stored and pilfered merchandise as if they had an absolute right to take it.

The perception to the downtown whites was that Harlem was no longer safe for them to venture into, even to see the wondrous entertainment at the Cotton Club. In addition, black musicians and entertainers no longer considered the Cotton Club as the top of the heap. It became a place where the entertainers could start their careers, but once they got noticed, they went on to bigger and better things. Business became so bad at the Cotton Club, and other Harlem clubs that catered to the white downtown crowd, such as Small's Paradise on 7th Avenue, that Harlem's Cotton Club closed its doors for good on February 16th, 1936.

DeMange and Herman Stark, with Madden's blessing from Hot Springs, moved the Cotton Club downtown to Forty-Eighth Street and Broadway, to a space formerly occupied by the Harlem Club. The new Cotton Club was an immediate success. It had its grand re-opening on September 24th, 1936. Cab Calloway and Bill "Bojangles" Robinson performed that night, as did Avis Andrews, the Berry Brothers, and the gorgeous Katherine Perry, who was so light-skinned she could easily pass for white.

Because it was so accessible with its new Midtown location, the Cotton Club was raking in the cash. In the third week alone, it grossed more than $ 45,000, and in the first sixteen weeks, the average weekly gross was $ 30,000. The prices in the new joint were higher than the Cotton Club's in Harlem. A steak sandwich rose from $ 1.25 to $ 2.25. Scrambled eggs with Deerfield sausage rose from $ 1.25 to a $ 1.50 and lobster cocktails went from $ 1.00 to $ 1.50.

Still DeMange and Stark kept packing them in.

One price that did decrease was the Cottons Club's cover charge. In Harlem, in order to keep the "undesirables" away, the cover charge was $ 3 per table. However, since blacks very rarely crossed the "Mason-Dixon Line" of 110th Street, the new Cottons Club's cover charge was $ 2 per table during dinner time, and nothing after that.

The new Cotton Club continued to thrive until the summer of 1939, when the Internal Revenue Service hit the club's management with indictments for income tax evasion. The indictments hit the Cotton Club Management Corp, including Herman Stark – President, George Goodrich, – Accountant, and Noah Braustein – Secretary-Treasurer, with four counts of failure to pay, and embezzlement of taxes. If convicted, all three men could face up to 25 years in prison, and fines of up to $ 20,000 apiece. Amazingly, because he was just listed as an employee, Frenchy DeMange escaped the indictment. At trial, the Cotton Club Management Corp. was found guilty, but the three officers escaped conviction. Still, Stark had to fork over a hefty fine to the government, in addition to $ 3,400 owed in back taxes.

At the start of 1940, it was obvious that the Cotton Club, and Herman Stark, had money problems. Besides the high Midtown rent and the effects of the Depression, the unions, especially the musician union, had a stranglehold on Stark and his profits. Before his problems with the IRS, Stark was skimming money off the top to make up for any shortfalls the unions and the high entertainment payrolls caused. But with the government watching the Cotton Club like a hawk, skimming was now impossible.

The Cotton Club closed its door for good on June 10th, 1940. Stark and DeMange gave no official reason, but as one columnist put it, the main reason was, "the lack of the famous, old filthy lucre."

Yet, that explanation would be too simplistic. Of course money was a problem, but also America's taste for music like Duke Ellington's and Cab Calloway's was changing too. The younger generation of Americans were enthralled with the new jazz and "swing" styles of white bandleaders like Tommy Dorsey, Artie Shaw, and the "King of Swing" – Benny Goodman.

The Cotton Club was a great idea whose lifespan had reached its conclusion. The black entertainers who had cut their teeth working at the Cotton Club, people like Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, and Lena Horne, all went on to establish long and wondrous careers. But the concept of a night club with all black entertainment no longer appealed to the white mainstream of America.

The Cotton Club closed because it was a concept that had blossomed, then like a gilded rose, slowly died.

Still, the memory, and the impact of the Cotton Club on society will linger as long as song and dance remain an integral part of our American culture.

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Source by Joseph Bruno