Candlesticks Versus Range and Renko Bars – Which Is the Best for E-Mini Trading?


I have never fully understood the relationship between time periods and E-mini trading. After all, time is an arbitrary measurement established by humankind and does not tell me much about price action or potential price movement. I realize that I am in the minority in this view, which is nothing new for me; on the other hand, if you really want to focus on price action why not use bars that are designed to do just that?

Candlesticks are noisy and hard to interpret and I have many e-mini trading students struggle trading the darn things. We tend to set specific time periods to measure price action and make specific decisions based upon the price action that occurs during that time period. This seems counterintuitive to me, as the market does not trade with 3 minute, 5 minute, or 15 minute increments. Price action is an ongoing and evolving variable that changes throughout the course of the day. I am interested in pure price action; and I am not interested in all the noisy machinations that are trading "background noise." When trading candlesticks you get the whole package; price movement and all the accompanying background noise.

Renko and range bars form without benefit of any time constraints; they simply express exactly what the price is doing at a given point of time during the trading day. Renko bars have their origin in Japanese trading and are solely concerned with price action; there is no time constraint on how long it takes a 4 Renko bar to form. It only forms when the market moves 4 ticks in the same direction. 4 Range bars form within price action moves four ticks in any direction. That being said, non-time related bars are especially useful for support and resistance traders as these levels are easily seen because of the nature of Renko bar movement.

There are a number of variations of Renko bars besides the traditional "bricks" used in traditional bar trading. I personally prefer the "Better Renko" bars because they clearly indicate the range of a given bar during its formation. More recently "UniRenko bars" have made their appearance; these bars are similar to Better Renko bars but they use an averaging system that is similar to Heiken-Ashi bars. I have had great success with Heiken-Ashi trading during trending markets but they can be a little tricky in a sideways market. For that reason alone, I stick with the Better Renko bars and have done so for the past six years.

Candlesticks on the other hand have their uses, but you have to contend with a great deal of market noise interpretation and I have found this is the realm of the most experienced traders. I start off my new traders with price action oriented bars with great success.

Have you used Better Renko bars? You might read up on them and identify the advantages and disadvantages they may have over traditional candlestick bars. They're not for everybody, but they are for me.


Source by David S. Adams

Herpes and Relationships – Like Peanut Butter and Pickles?


Many people who have contracted genital herpes buy into the mythological view that they are now part of a tiny, shunned fragment of society. It is all too easy to believe that having both genital herpes and relationships with others (romantically, at least) is no longer possible.

If this is your mindset, it is helpful to remember that between 20-25% of the adult population in North American currently has genital herpes. This means that you could throw a pebble into a crowd on the busiest street in your city and have a pretty good chance of hitting someone who has it.

Of course, having herpes and relationships with others is made more complicated by the fact that nobody is willing to come right out and mention their condition when they first meet someone new. The truth is that most people do not have the iron resilience to deal with someone who reacts very badly to the news, someone who has not contracted genital herpes themselves (or does not know they have).

Because of this, the modern way to have both herpes and relationships with others is through online dating. There are specific sites that cater to people who have contracted an std – and do not want the hassle and humiliation of telling every potential mate.

Now you may not want to talk or think about herpes anymore, or you may be at a stage where you want more knowledge and understanding. With a herpes dating site, you could get either: finding someone else who already has herpes takes you both past the point of needing to talk about it or disclose it, or you may use a herpes dating site as a support group to gain more information or share experiences.


Source by DG Gordon

Bikinis for Wide Hips


Hips are in, the curvaceous figure is back in style and wide hips are what it's all about, so read on, were going to give you some ideas on what kind of bikini looks best for women with wider hips.

A woman with a thicker torso has more options believe it or not when it comes to bikinis than a skinny torso, the reason for this is that fashion styles are changing and the movement in the fashion industry is a heavier, healthier look.

One of our favorites when it comes to bikinis for wide hips is the scoop front bikini. The scoop front style of bikini bottoms does two things, it elongates and smooth's the torso and the scoop front tends to give depth and further elongate the mid-section from the frontal view. For these two reasons, the scoop front bikini is by far our favorite recommendation when it comes to bikinis for wide hips. This scoop front bikini bottom will smooth and accentuate your curves and give your torso that perfect bikini look.

The next option is simply the string bikini bottom. Back in the 60's when the bikini was making its debut, string bikinis were the rage and women with hips were the model of choice. The string bikini allows the hips to flow, it tends to draw attention away from the hip area and draw more attention to the complete body and is not that really what the idea of ​​a bikini is all about, to admire the full package and not focus on one area.

Bikinis with straps have become very popular on fashion runways around the world. As the fashion industry changes and the more curvaceous women is desired the bikini with straps is gaining a great deal of focus from beach goers around the world. The multiple strap bikini is a perfect choice when looking for bikinis for wide hips. The multiple straps will tend to draw attention to the style and not the area. Typically the bikini with multiple straps will cover more of the hip area for a more polished finished appearance.

If you are looking for more coverage than the vintage style bikini is on the comeback. The late 50's design of bikini is on a comeback and is really gaining ground in the Hollywood celebrity ring. These bikinis are great when it comes to designer bikinis for wide hips, they tend to ride high on the waist line and five full coverage. Many have control panels built in for a little extra tummy control if desired.

Tankini Bikinis are the rage for all body types at the moment mostly driven by the need for less sun exposure but the styles, colors and patterns are incredibly diverse and sexy. The tankini bikini offers full coverage for the woman that simply wants to keep things under cover. Many women today are still uncomfortable with their hip area and prefer to keep a more conservative look. This is unfortunate especially with the way the desired optimum bikini body is changing to a curvier look, but the tankini is an excellent choice in any case.

One of the latest fashion bikinis is the shaping bikini. These bikinis offer a scoop front design but the scoop I in more of a "V" shape. With the V front offset by a wider waist band, this bikini gives an incredible slimming appearance that no other bikini offers. This bikini by design is made for women with a wider hip area and thicker thighs. The shaper bikini is stunning by nature and is a perfect choice for women with a thicker torso.

Skirted bikinis are again more of a coverage type of bikini style for the more conservative woman, but are incredibly sexy and are quite versatile. You can go from sipping drinks by the pool at happy hour to walking down the street in the local town window shopping. Again as with Tankinis, they come in a wide range of styles, colors and patterns.

Finally for the really outgoing were going to mention the thong or g string bikini. Take note, the thong and g string bikini were originally designed for the woman that had hips. It not only draws attention away from the hip area, but in most cases it completely eliminates the traditional wider hip appearance and gives a more balanced look.

It's all about purchasing the right bikini bottom and the correct top to balance out your body type.


Source by Roni Joy

The Benefits of Brochure Marketing


Brochures provide countless uses for businesses across the spectrum. Used as a support for other forms of marketing, the brochure provides a great explanation of what your business offers, while also allowing you to effectively communicate your message.

Portable Salesman – Thinking of your brochure as your marketing associate will allow you to sell your services whenever and wherever your prospect is. By having it with them, the prospect can view it on their own time. By viewing it on their own time, people will be most likely to listen to it and hearing what you have to say.

Ease of distribution – Brochures are easy to distribute. Most can be folded into standard mailing sizes to be sent alone, or can be included as a complete sales packet. They also can be handed out on the street, left in doctor's offices, heavily trafficked street corners, etc.

Credibility – They add an extra layer of credibility. Used in conjunction with other marketing efforts, they expand your branding showing that you are more than just a letterhead and business card. Brochures give the perfect opportunity to let your prospects know how long you've been in business, the benefits of using your services, and the amount of experience you have.

Customization – With brochure printing costs on the decline, many businesses find benefit in creating tailored brochures for each demographic. This helps in providing enhanced customization, and allow the prospect to feel as though they are a valued potential client.

Direct Mail – Brochure mailing is a huge industry and for a good reason. Mailing brochures to a targeted list of prospects is a great way to gain business. These brochures can be "self-mailed" which means they are simply folded and "tabbed", sticky round pads applied to the opening of the fold, and addressed to the recipients. The other option, more costly but more personal, is to have brochures placed inside envelopes. These are great options for luxury items or services where personalization goes a long way.

Branding – Like any other marketing piece in your company, keeping consistent branding is critical. People hold brochures for extended periods of time, they feel them and touch them, read them and keep them at their desk. Making sure your brochure is well branded will go a long way in pushing your brand into your target market.

Brochures will and always will be one of the most popular forms of marketing. With multiple size, shape and customization options, brochures continue to inform prospects around the world.


Source by Melanie C Turner

Pedophile – Characteristics and Behavior Patterns


o In spite of increased reporting most people imagine a child molester as some ugly, old or deranged man in a trench coat coaxing children to come to him in exchange for some candy. They do not think of Uncle Gus or Aunt Milly, the neighbor next door, the friendly clergy person, or trusted family friend. They do not think of mom, dad, cousins, siblings, grandparents or in the case of single parents, their significant other. These misconceptions are the only reason sex offenders can continue to sexually abuse children.

o The widespread misconception that child molestation consists primarily of children being seized from the street and forcibly molested is the lowest incidence of child sexual assault Although these incidents do occur, 99% of child sexual abuse survivors know their assailant, who uses their status and knowledge of the child to intimidate and persuade the child into submission and compliance.

o The most common response when I speak about the prevalence of sexual child abuse is in the form of denial: "I do not have to be concerned about that in my community. That would never happen in my family."

o Through numerous case studies, the Department of Justice has developed characteristics and behavior patterns of a pedophile. These characteristics and behavior patterns include, but are not limited to the following:

Is most often an adult male – 80% of children are sexually abused by family members – the father is the most prevalent followed by uncle or grandparent and step-father or significant other.

It is usually married.

Works in a wide range of occupations, from unskilled laborer, corporate executive, doctor, lawyer, judge or clergy.

Relates better to children than adults.

Socializes with few adults unless they are pedophiles.

Usually prefers children in a specific age group.

Usually prefers either males or females, but may be bi-sexual.

May seek employment or volunteer with programs involving children of the age of his / her preference.

Pursues children for sexual purposes.

Frequently photographs or collects photographs of his victims, either dressed, nude, or in sexually explicit acts.

Collects child erotica and child-adult pornography:

To lower the inhibitions of victims.

To fantasize when no potential victim is available.

To relive his sexual activities.

To justify his activities. (The depiction of others engaged in these acts legitimizes them in the pedophile's mind.)

To blackmail victims to keep them from telling.

May possess and furnish narcotics to his / her victims to lower their inhibitions.

Sometimes recognizes that he / she is acting inappropriately and understands the severity of it, but is unable to stop him / herself because it is a compulsion.

Goes to great lengths to conceal his illegal activity.

Goes to great lengths to present him / herself as an exemplary person; developing a persona of goodness above reproach, thus thwarting any suspicion of wrongdoing –especially against a child, whom they have judicially professed great care and concern. Michael Jackson is society's emperor with no clothes.

Rationalizes his / her illicit activities, emphasizing his / her positive impact upon the victim and repressing feelings about the harm he / she has done.

Often portrays the child as the aggressor. This usually occurs after the child realizes that by withholding "sexual favors" the child will obtain what he / she desires, such as new toys, clothing, or trips. Joey Buttafuoco, the Long Island body shop owner who gained notoriety in the 1990's when his teenage victim shot his wife; used the 'blame the victim' defense that she would not leave him alone, as if she were the adult and he a minor.

Talks about children as one would talk about an adult lover or spouse.

More often than not, sex offenders are child molestation survivors; frequently seeks out children at the age or stage of physical development at which he / she was molested.

Often seeks out publications and organizations that support his / her sexual beliefs and practices.

Usually corresponds with other pedophiles and exchanges child pornography and erotica as proof of involvement.

Is usually non-violent and has few problems with the law (pedophiles are more often than not respected community members).

To protect children from sexual abuse parents / adults need to know: What sexual abuse or incest is; What to do; and How to teach self-protection. Self-protection offers a direct and effective way to empower children to help themselves. Since the perpetrator cunningly and with forethought sets the stage to perpetrate this crime in secrecy, who is better able than the child to protect him / herself. Sex offenders say they can sense a child to victimize; they sense this by the child's demeanor, body language and facial expressions. Sex offenders choose victims who they assume will keep the secret. No child needs to fall prey to these cunning predators. If I'd Only Known … Sexual Abuse in or out of the Family: A Guide to Prevention is the one book every parent / caretaker needs to keep children safe. This book describes Seven compelling parent approved and child tested techniques to thwart would-be sex offenders.


Source by Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD

Mobsters – The Cotton Club






In the 1890's, Harlem was the land speculator's dream. The elevated railroad lines that had been extended to 129th Street in Manhattan, had transformed the area from the hinterlands to what was called "The Great Migration."

At the time, black families lived mostly in the area between Thirty-Seventh Streets and Fifty-Eight Streets, between Eighth and Ninth Avenues. The upper crust of society viewed Harlem as the next step for the upwardly mobile, and as a result, splendorous townhouses costing thousands more than comparables downtown, were being built as fast as the Harlem land could be purchased by the land speculators.

By 1905, the bottom of the Harlem real estate market fell though the floor. The land speculators were forced to face the fact that the townhouse had been built too quick, and that the prices were far above what the people were prepared to pay for them.

On the verge of bankruptcy, the land speculators used tactics that today would be illegal. They decided to rent their buildings to black tenants, far above what they would charge white tenants. Then, in a frenzy to recapture their losses, the land speculators approached white building owners and told them if they did not purchase vacant buildings they would rent them out exclusively to blacks, thereby reducing the value of the white landowner's properties. The white landowners did not bite, so the land speculators made good on their promises. Whites began moving out of Harlem in droves, replaced by black families who had never lived in such a fine neighborhood before. Black churches followed their congregations from the slums of Manhattan to the splendor of Harlem, and by the early 1920's, Harlem was the largest black community in the United States.

However, most blacks could not afford the high rents charged by the white building owners, so they took in tenants, causing two and sometimes three families to live in a one, or two-bedroom apartment. Coinciding with the overcrowding of Harlem, came the influx of illegal enterprises, such as numbers runners, houses of prostitution, and drug dealers. This was counteracted somewhat when prosperous blacks, mostly in the entertainment business, decided Harlem was where they could showcase their talents in a neighborhood filled with people of their own race. Fritz Pollard, noted All-American football player, who made his money in the real estate, moved to Harlem, as did fellow All-America football player Paul Robeson – destined to hone an outstanding career acting and singing on stage. They were quickly followed by famous singers like Ethel Walters and Florance Mills, and Harlem was ready for a renaissance equal to that of the glowing White Way on Broadway.

However, when there was money to be made, white gangsters like Dutch Schultz and Owney "The Killer" Madden were ready to jump in and take the profits, by force if necessary, which is the way they did business anyway. Schultz muscled his way into the Harlem numbers business, chasing out such black notables as Madam Stephanie St. Claire and Caspar Holstein. And during the height of Prohibition, Madden had his eyes on the perfect place to sell his bootleg booze: The Club Deluxe on 142nd Street and Lenox Avenue.

The Club Deluxe was owned by former world heavyweight champion Jack Johnson, the first black heavyweight champion of the world. Whereas, Johnson was proficient with his fists, Madden and his formidable crew were good with guns, knives, and bats. A few choice words, backed with the threat of violence, with few meager bucks thrown in, and Johnson handed over Club Deluxe to Madden and his partner / manager George "Big Frenchy" DeMange. The two gangsters renamed it The Cotton Club.

Not to totally insult a black man with the prestige of Johnson, Madden threw Johnson a bone, and let him hang around the joint, resplendent in a tuxedo. Johnson would smile and tell everyone who asked that he was the assistant manager under DeMange.

To understand why such a great heavyweight boxer like Johnson would cower before Madden, who was barely five-foot-five-inches and 140 pounds after a huge dinner, one would have to be made aware of Madden's background.

Owen "Owney" Madden was born at 25 Somerset Street, in Leeds, England, on December 18, 1891. In need of work, his father moved the Madden family to Liverpool. In 1903, when young Madden was only 12, his father died, and his mother re-located her family to America, settling on the West Side of Manhattan, in a neighborhood called "Hells Kitchen."

Madden fell in with a boisterous gang known as the Gophers. He became proficient in the favored crimes of the era: robberies, muggings, and labor racket beatings. In order to hurt and intimidate, Madden's favorite weapon was a lead pipe, wrapped in newspaper.

Madden made a ton of money in a racket called the "insurance business." As the president of his own "insurance company," Madden would visit the local establishments and tell the business owners that the owner needed "bomb insurance," in case foreigners, or maybe even Madden himself, decided to bomb the businessman's store. The business owners caught wind quick, and paid Madden what he demanded. If they did not pay Madden, that's businessman's stores would go up in flames and debris in a matter of days, and sometimes even hours. While Madden was a member of the Gophers, and making tons of money in his "insurance business," he was arrested 44 times, but not once did he ever go to prison.

When Madden was 17, he earned his nickname "The Killer." A poor Italian immigrant did nothing wrong, except cross paths with Madden on a street in Hell's Kitchen. In front of a crowd of his fellow Gophers, and whomever else was standing on the street that day, Madden pulled out a gun and shot the Italian dead. Then Madden stood over the dead body and announced to the assembled crowd, "I'm Owney Madden!"

By the time he was 23, Madden had at least five other murders to his credit. Hence the nickname – "The Killer."

However, Madden thought he was bulletproof, until November 6th, 1912, at the Arbor Dance Hall, which was in the heart of the territory controlled by the Gopher's rivals: the Hudson Dusters. Madden strolled into the hall by himself, like he had nary a care in the world, during a dance given by the Dave Hyson Association. Madden was watching the proceedings from the balcony, when eleven Hudson Dusters surrounded him and shot Madden six times. Madden was rushed to the hospital, where a detective asked Madden who had shot him.

"Nothin 'doin,'" Madden said. "It's no business but mine who put these slugs into me. My boys will get them."

By the time Madden was released from the hospital, six of his eleven assailants had already been shot dead.

While Madden was recuperating from his wounds, one of his fellow Gophers, Little Patsy Doyle, figured he'd take control of Madden's gang. Doyle was also intent on taking back his former girlfriend, Freda Horner, who now was the sole property of Madden. Miss Horner told Madden about Doyle's intentions, and as a result, Madden told Miss Horner to tell Doyle she would be glad to meet him for a date at a saloon on Eighth Avenue and 41st Street. When Doyle arrived, dressed to the nines and all smiles, two of Madden's gunmen shot Doyle dead.

Being the obvious suspect, Madden was arrested three days later for the murder of Little Patsy Doyle. At Madden's trial, he was shocked to discover that Miss Horner had betrayed him too. Miss Horner testified in court that it was Madden who had set up the Doyle murder. As a result, Madden was convicted and sentenced to 10-20 years in Sing Sing Prison. He did only eight years, and was released in 1923, just in time to strong-arm Jack Johnson into selling him the Club Deluxe, aka- The Cotton Club. By this time Madden was big into bootlegging with his partner Big Bill Dwyer, and the Cotton Club was the perfect place to sell their illegal hootch, especially their famous Madden No. 1 beer, which was considered the best brew in New York City. They took in a legitimate guy named Herman Stark as their front man / partner / stage manager, but the show within the show was completely run by Madden and DeMange.

According to Jim Haskins book The Cotton Club, when Madden and DeMange took over the joint they redid the entire interior "to cater to the white downtowner's taste for the primitive." The club was made over in "jungle decor," with numerous artificial palm trees dotted throughout the spacious establishment, which had seating for 700 people. The most exquisite draperies, tablecloths, and fixtures were purchased, indicating this was a "plush late-night supper club," and the exorbitant prices highlighted that fact. The menu was varied. Besides the traditional steaks and chops, the Cotton Club cooks drummed up Chinese and Mexican dishes, as well as "Harlem" cuisine like fried chicken and barbecued spareribs.

DeMange presided over the front door like a tyrant. One rule was perfectly clear. Although the waiters, busboys, bartenders, cooks, service personnel, and performers were all black, no black people were allowed inside as customers. (The name itself – The Cotton Club – came from the light brown color of undyed cotton.) The chorus girls had to be "tall, tan, and terrific" which meant that they had to be at least 5-feet-6- inches tall, light skinned, and no older than twenty-one. The girls also had to be expert dancers, and at least be able to carry a tune. For some unknown reason, there was no color-shade restriction on the black male dancers, who were all proficient in "high-stepping, gyrating and snake-dancing."

To show how strict Madden and DeMange were about their policy of segregation, about a month before their second grand opening, (The Cotton Club was closed by Prohibition agents for a while, ever though the local cops were on the pad), the following job interview took place. Present were Madden and DeMange, along with their choreographer Althea Fuller, and their orchestra conductor Andy Preer. The girl being interviewed was Queenie Duchamp.

DeMange to Madden: Boss, when is the club going to be ready to open?

Madden: The pigs will not cause us trouble for a time. They know if we're forced to close for bootlegging they will not get their bonuses. As it is, they're missing the extra padding and the boys have been complaining to the Sarge. Yeah, they've learned their lesson. As for the club's show … let's ask Althea and Andy.

DeMange to Preer: Andy, how's the pit? Ready for next month's opening?

Preer: We will be. If Althea gets her girls ready, the pit is ready to stomp.

Althea Fuller: Boss, we had a setback. One of the girls went and found a "moral conscience." She's following her sister, a Garveyite, back to Africa. Shame, she was a looker in the front line. Do not worry, Boss, I've already got replacements ready to audition for you today. One of them looks promising and comes with a recommendation. She's in the front row, third one in … Queenie Duchamp. First, let's see if she can remember the steps she was taught this morning.

(Andy Preer leads the orchestra in "I've Found a New Baby" and 5 dancing girls audition. Queenie Duchamp is third from the left.)

Madden: Keep the third and the fifth. The other girls are too dark and short. Althea, make sure you grill them about rules and rehearsals. We are NOT running a gut bucket operation here.

(Madden leaves with his bodyguards)

Fuller: Queenie, come here. You got the job on a few conditions.

Queenie: Anything you want Miss Fuller.

Fuller: Number one – No booze, No boys, No drugs. No exceptions.

Queenie: Yes, Miss.

Fuller: Number two- Rehearsals are Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday starting at 1:00 pm sharp. All rehearsals are MANDATORY and lateness will not be accepted. I do not know what you've heard, but rehearsals here are grueling and performances are long with many elaborate costume changes. That means you can not afford to be draggin 'your ass around here. Make sure you eat and get your rest. Do you understand?

Queenie: Yes, Miss Fuller.

Fuller: Number three – No mixing with the patrons. There are about 700 whitefolk that walk through those doors every night. And according to Mr. Madden, they only have one goal here and that's to spend money. They come here to hear the best Negro music and dance numbers in the city. They might act like they want to be your friend after a couple of drinks, but they do not. Mr. Madden does not want the races mixin 'and as far as I'm concerned, I think that's better for business anyway.

DeMange: If a white customer starts to give you a problem or tries to make a connection with you, tell me. I'll take care of it. It's happened before. Sometimes these rich people get a couple drinks in them and they think they own the world. Do not worry about it, just let me know. We run a tight ship here.

Queenie: Yes, Mr. DeMange. No problem Ms. Fuller. I am an entertainer and I understand the importance of practice. In fact, I'm a singer, a blues singer! If you ever need a singer ….. (Ms. Fuller and Mr. DeMange look at each other.)

Fuller: Look, missy. Your goal here is to dance, smile and follow the rules … not sing. Got it?

Queenie: Yes, Miss Fuller. Got it.

Fuller: Another thing … stay out of trouble. You're a looker and the club world can be dirty and dangerous. It does not have to be though. Keep to yourself and whatever you do, stay out of Mr. Madden's way. If you do this, you'll be fine. Now go to wardrobe for a fitting.

Queenie: Yes and Thank you, Miss Fuller.

The Cotton Club was an immediate success with the downtown swells. On opening night, the Fletcher Henderson band entertained the crowd (Henderson's band was the house band until June 1931). Through radio broadcasts originating nightly from the Cotton Club, Henderson's band was such a success, he became one of the most sought after band leaders in America. Following Henderson was the Duke Ellington Band (until 1934), and then Cab Calloway and the Cotton Club Orchestra.

Despite the fact the only booze served on the premises was Madden's No. 1 beer, customers were allowed, even encouraged, to bring their own booze they had obtained illegally elsewhere. Of course, the management had a hefty set-up charge, which included the glasses, ice, and the mixers. If a customer came unprepared and still wanted booze instead of beer, the doorman, and sometimes even a waiter, came in handy. A bottle of champagne could cost a customer $ 30, and a bottle of scotch – $ 18, a kingly sum in those days. But the customers were well-healed, and nobody ever gripped about the prices; at least, nobody who cared about their continued good health.

After a while, DeMange and Madden lightened up a bit on the "no-black-customers-allowed" policy. This happened in 1932, right after WC Handy, known as "The King of the Blues," was denied admission, even though the Duke Ellington Band was inside playing songs that Handy had written. Ellington pleaded his case to Madden, and Madden agreed to loosen his policy. But just a little bit.

Light-skinned blacks were now allowed in as customers, and a few darker blacks, who were famous entertainers themselves. However, blacks in mixed parties was a definite no-no.

Writer and photographer Carl Van Vechten wrote, "There were brutes at the door to enforce the Cotton Club's policy which was opposed to mixed parties."

Jim Haskins wrote in The Cotton Club, "Only the lightest-complexioned Negroes gained entrance, and even they were carefully screened. The club's management was aware that most white downtowners wanted to observe Harlem blacks, not with mix with them."

Even famed comedian Jimmy Durante displayed blatant racism when he said, "It is not necessary to mix with colored people if you do not feel like it. You have your own party and keep to yourself. But it's worth seeing. How they step ! "

Durante went as far as to intimate that blacks were innately more violent than whites. "Racial lines are drawn here to prevent possible trouble," Durante said. "Nobody wants razors, blackjacks or fists flying. And the chances of war are less if there's no mixing."

In 1933, after he settled a little problem with the IRS, and with Prohibition now over, Madden decided to call it a day. He handed over the reigns of the Cotton Club to DeMange, and hightailed it to Hot Springs, Arkansas, where he opened a hotel / spa, which became the favorite hideout for New York mobsters on the lam from the law. In fact, when New York Mafioso Lucky Luciano was in hiding, because a bulldog special prosecutor named Thomas E. Dewey had a warrant for Luciano's arrest on a trumped-up prostitution charge, it was at Madden's resort where Luciano was finally arrested after four months on the run.

Of course, Madden was still a silent partner with DeMange in the Cotton Club, but the huge profits would soon diminish, before coming to a halt in Harlem.

It started with the Great Depression, which had cut down dramatically on the disposable income of the rich, and the formerly rich. Downtown revelers who had frequented the Cotton Club came less often, and when they did come, they spent less money. These same revelers got caught up in the street gang mentality, and as a result, an avalanches of bullets stared flying in Harlem; whites shooting blacks, blacks shooting whites, and members of the same race slinging shots at each other. With so much lead zinging though the Harlem air, white-oriented Harlem clubs like the Cotton Club suffered a dramatic decrease in attendance.

In addition, no area of ​​America was affected more by the Depression than Harlem. By 1934, according to the New York Urban League, more than 80% of Harlem residents were on "Home Relief," which we now call Welfare. The Reverend Adam Clayton Powell fanned the flames of racial tensions when he started leading boycotts of white-owned stores in Harlem, in order to force them to hire more black workers. Despair and resentment sprung up in the streets of Harlem, and this lead to a fateful day in Harlem history.

A dark-skinned, 16-year-old Puerto Rican named Lino Rivera was sulking around the streets of Harlem, out of work and desperately looking for a job; any job. To pass the time, he took in a movie, then went to the Kress Department Store on 125th Street. There he spotted a knife he wanted. But the knife cost ten cents and Rivera did not have ten cents. Rivera had just snatched the knife and put it into his pocket, when a male employee of the store grabbed Rivera, and a scuffle ensued. While the two men were battling and another white employee tried to subdue Rivera, a crowd of black shoppers surrounded the fight, obviously favoring Rivera. During the melee, Rivera bit the thumb of one of the white employees. The injured man shouted, "I'm going to take you down to the basement and beat the hell out of you."

Big mistake.

Within minutes, the rumor had spread on the streets of Harlem that two white men were beating a black boy to death. This false rumor received dubious confirmation, when a blaring ambulance pulled up in front of the Kress Department Store. It made no difference the ambulance was there for the white man who had the severely bitten finger.

That night the streets of Harlem erupted in total bedlam. Born out of resentment of the Depression, and the dismal way white people had been treating black people in Harlem for years, hundred of blacks rioted in the streets. They looted white-owned stored and pilfered merchandise as if they had an absolute right to take it.

The perception to the downtown whites was that Harlem was no longer safe for them to venture into, even to see the wondrous entertainment at the Cotton Club. In addition, black musicians and entertainers no longer considered the Cotton Club as the top of the heap. It became a place where the entertainers could start their careers, but once they got noticed, they went on to bigger and better things. Business became so bad at the Cotton Club, and other Harlem clubs that catered to the white downtown crowd, such as Small's Paradise on 7th Avenue, that Harlem's Cotton Club closed its doors for good on February 16th, 1936.

DeMange and Herman Stark, with Madden's blessing from Hot Springs, moved the Cotton Club downtown to Forty-Eighth Street and Broadway, to a space formerly occupied by the Harlem Club. The new Cotton Club was an immediate success. It had its grand re-opening on September 24th, 1936. Cab Calloway and Bill "Bojangles" Robinson performed that night, as did Avis Andrews, the Berry Brothers, and the gorgeous Katherine Perry, who was so light-skinned she could easily pass for white.

Because it was so accessible with its new Midtown location, the Cotton Club was raking in the cash. In the third week alone, it grossed more than $ 45,000, and in the first sixteen weeks, the average weekly gross was $ 30,000. The prices in the new joint were higher than the Cotton Club's in Harlem. A steak sandwich rose from $ 1.25 to $ 2.25. Scrambled eggs with Deerfield sausage rose from $ 1.25 to a $ 1.50 and lobster cocktails went from $ 1.00 to $ 1.50.

Still DeMange and Stark kept packing them in.

One price that did decrease was the Cottons Club's cover charge. In Harlem, in order to keep the "undesirables" away, the cover charge was $ 3 per table. However, since blacks very rarely crossed the "Mason-Dixon Line" of 110th Street, the new Cottons Club's cover charge was $ 2 per table during dinner time, and nothing after that.

The new Cotton Club continued to thrive until the summer of 1939, when the Internal Revenue Service hit the club's management with indictments for income tax evasion. The indictments hit the Cotton Club Management Corp, including Herman Stark – President, George Goodrich, – Accountant, and Noah Braustein – Secretary-Treasurer, with four counts of failure to pay, and embezzlement of taxes. If convicted, all three men could face up to 25 years in prison, and fines of up to $ 20,000 apiece. Amazingly, because he was just listed as an employee, Frenchy DeMange escaped the indictment. At trial, the Cotton Club Management Corp. was found guilty, but the three officers escaped conviction. Still, Stark had to fork over a hefty fine to the government, in addition to $ 3,400 owed in back taxes.

At the start of 1940, it was obvious that the Cotton Club, and Herman Stark, had money problems. Besides the high Midtown rent and the effects of the Depression, the unions, especially the musician union, had a stranglehold on Stark and his profits. Before his problems with the IRS, Stark was skimming money off the top to make up for any shortfalls the unions and the high entertainment payrolls caused. But with the government watching the Cotton Club like a hawk, skimming was now impossible.

The Cotton Club closed its door for good on June 10th, 1940. Stark and DeMange gave no official reason, but as one columnist put it, the main reason was, "the lack of the famous, old filthy lucre."

Yet, that explanation would be too simplistic. Of course money was a problem, but also America's taste for music like Duke Ellington's and Cab Calloway's was changing too. The younger generation of Americans were enthralled with the new jazz and "swing" styles of white bandleaders like Tommy Dorsey, Artie Shaw, and the "King of Swing" – Benny Goodman.

The Cotton Club was a great idea whose lifespan had reached its conclusion. The black entertainers who had cut their teeth working at the Cotton Club, people like Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, and Lena Horne, all went on to establish long and wondrous careers. But the concept of a night club with all black entertainment no longer appealed to the white mainstream of America.

The Cotton Club closed because it was a concept that had blossomed, then like a gilded rose, slowly died.

Still, the memory, and the impact of the Cotton Club on society will linger as long as song and dance remain an integral part of our American culture.


Source by Joseph Bruno

Never Show Your Weakness – Keeping Eye Contact



There is a lot of emphasis on eye contact during interactions with people. But the advice given is often mechanical with an instruction booklet.

The importance of eye contact is evident when you are with somebody who is wearing sunglasses. It feels awkward and uncomfortable when you can not see their eyes.

The eyes are an instinctive focal point. And we can usually define a person's character by their eyes. For example when you look at a killers photograph (Mira Hindley and Ian Brady- prime examples) you get the feeling of "evilness" just by their eyes.

Not only is eye contact important, but also NOT giving eye contact. Somebody can not give you eye contact because of negative emotions like sadness, boredom or depression. It can also be a sign of shame or guilt. So either way you slice it- the eyes convey a lot, whether you give it or whether you do not.

And women go on eyes and eye contact for attractiveness in a man. I've never asked a girl how they judge a guy by his eyes, but apparently they do. Maybe it could be a result of the eye contact a guy gives? Like when he looks into her eyes, he's making her feel weak and vulnerable, depending on his hidden intentions anyway.

In any case, we know eyes are important and we need to be able to look at them. In the same respect, people need to see OUR eyes so they feel they can trust you and see you in your entirety.

Try this …

Walk out along the street and hold eye contact with people as you go about your day. People will be walking past and have their heads down, but try it.

Uncomfortable? Feel a pressure to look away?

Now try it wearing sunglasses.

How much easier is trying to get eye contact when you are behind sunglasses? Does it feel a bit more comfortable?

The sunglasses are like a mask. It's a hell of a lot easier to try looking people in the eye because you know they can not do the same to you. If you want a spiritually sexual innuendo, they can not penetrate your soul.

It's amazing how just the simple act of covering your eyes can allow you to feel a bit more powerful and confident.

So what does this tell you?

Eye contact is easy when we feel we are hidden from view. But why would we hide? Or why would we divert our eyes from sustained eye contact?

Simple- because we feel vulnerable and unconfident. We feel people can know everything about us. On the other hand they are a means to avoid being challenging. When somebody gets into a rage and they want to attack, they often give no eye contact before they lash out. They do not want to give away any signals.

So ask yourself what you are communicating when you avoid contact.

1) You are vulnerable and low in status.

2) You feel inferior to the other person so you do not want to appear challenging or draw attention.

3) Both of the above suggest little or no confidence.


Another point is the fear initiating something. A beautiful girl has just walked into the room. Now you can look at her for hours if you wanted to. That is- until she stops in conversation and looks your way.

"Busted! ABORT!"

You know that if you held eye contact you would have to go and do something. You would have to initiate. And on top of that, you feel vulnerable that you have put your interest out there. She knows you find her stunning to admire, but the thought of actually having a conversation with this fear gets you nervous. Once again, it comes down to feeling inferior and not wanting to initiate anything.

I try to avoid any eye contact, cuz if I do that then it opens the door for conversation like I want that – Eminem


Okay, so it is not a mechanical process. It is done automatically, in the same way that diverting your eyes is automatic. It all stems from how you feel about yourself, because that is what you unconsciously communicate.

If you did not feel inferior with the gorgeous girl across from you, you would gladly welcome her eyes coming in your direction. You would see that as a green light to initiate.

When you feel firm about a decision and you feel strongly about it, then you would not care about giving looking somebody in the eye if they disagree with you. You would not see it as a challenge to shy away from.

So the first obvious step for being comfortable with looking somebody in their eyes is to desensitise yourself to it. By that I mean do the walking down the street thing, and give eye contact to as many people as you can.

However, this is where your fear of 'what could happen next' might trigger off. You might think to yourself, "Shit. This could actually lead to a conversation. What do I do then ?!", and because of that you divert your eyes to avoid leading into it.

You've got to ask yourself where your discomfort comes from. Are you feeling vulnerable and unconfident about yourself? Or are you fearing the consequences- like conversation, initiating something, a guy squaring up to you etc?

There would be no point in going out and giving eye contact unless you feel confident and secure about what could happen next.

Remember, you use your eyes to communicate non-verbally. It is an act of subliminally initiating something with somebody else. And only the people who feel confident and powerful within themselves can naturally give it.


Source by Sean Adams

The Pentateuch, Law of Moses or Torah



It is believed that the name Pentateuch "the first five books of the Old Testament, the book of the Law" (The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopaedia, 1964, p.1402) was first found in the letter of Elora of a second century Gnostic, Ptolemy and passed into Christian use. These books are called The Law (Torah) or the Law of Moses by the Jews. (Everyman's Encyclopedia, 1978). It would be difficult to overestimate the role that the Pentateuch has played in the course of biblical scholarship. In all likelihood, these first five books in the Bible – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy- have been subjected to scrutiny more than any single block, with the sole possible exception of the Gospels (Knight and Tucker, 1985).


The word Pentateuch derives from the Greek pentateuchos "five-volumed (book)", following the Jewish designation "the five-fifths of the law". Jews call it the Torah, that is instruction, often rendered in English Law as it is called in the New Testament (Greek nomon; example, Matt. 5:17; Luke 16:17; Acts 7:53; 1 Cor. 9: 8). According to Lasor, Hubbard and Bush (1982), the Pentateuch was "the most important division of the Jewish canon, with an authority and sanctity far exceeding that attributed to the prophets and writing" (p.54). They observe that the books of the Pentateuch are not 'books' in the modern sense of independent self-contained entries, but were purposefully structured and intended as part of a larger unity; therefore the term Pentateuch is not only convenient but necessary. However, granted this fact of the unity of the larger corpus, the conventional five-fold division is important not simply as a convenient means of reference to the material, but because there is clear editorial evidence establishing just these five books as genuine subdivisions of the material. Despite marks of real disparity and complexity in structure and origins, far more primary and important is the overarching unity which the Pentateuch evidences. A careful reading of the Pentateuch will reveal, beside a definite unity of purpose, plan and arrangement, a diversity – a complexity – that is equally striking.


The traditional view according to Halley (1962) is that "Moses wrote the Pentateuch substantially … with the exception of the few verses at the close which give an account of his death, and occasional interpolations made by copyists for explanatory purposes" (p 0.56). This is in consonance with the view of Childs (1979). A modern critical view is that of a composite work of various scholars of priests made about the eighth century BC, for partisan purposes, based on oral traditions, the principal redactors of which are called J (for Jahweh / Yahweh, the personal name of God ), E (for Elohim, a generic name for God), D (for Deuteronomic) and P (for priestly). Each is claimed to be unique. However, "this view is not supported by conclusive research or evidence, and intensive archaeological and literary research has tended to undercut many of the arguments used to challenge Mosaic authorship" (The NIV Study Bible, 1984, p.2). Jews and Christians alike have held Moses to be the author / compiler of the Pentateuch.


The Pentateuch consists of the first five afore-mentioned books of the Bible. It must be observed that the first phrase in the Hebrew text of Genesis 1: 1 is bereshith [in (the) beginning] which is also the Hebrew title of the book. The English title, Genesis, is Greek in origin and is derived from geneseos 'birth', 'genealogy' or 'history of origin'. Genesis therefore appropriately describes its contents since it is primarily a book of beginnings. 'Exodus' is a Latin word from Greek exodos, meaning 'exit', 'departure'. Leviticus receives its name from the Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint) meaning 'relating to the Levites'. It mainly concerns the service of worship at the tabernacle which was conducted by the priests who were the sons of Aaron, assisted by many from the rest of the tribe of Levi. Exodus gave the directions for building the tabernacle and Leviticus the laws and regulations for worship there including instructions on ceremonial cleanness, moral laws, holy days, the Sabbath year and the Year of the Jubilee. The English name of the book Numbers comes from the Septuagint and is based on the census lists found in it. The Hebrew title of the book (bedmidbar, 'in the desert'), is more descriptive of its contents. It presents an account of the thirty-eight year period of Israel's wandering in the desert following the establishment of the covenant of Sinai. The word 'Deuteronomy' (meaning the repetition of the law '), the name of the last book of the Pentateuch, arose from a mistranslation in the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate of a phrase in Deuteronomy 17:18, which in Hebrew means 'copy of the law'. The error is not serious however since Deuteronomy is, in a certain sense, a repetition of the law.

Generally, the unity of the Pentateuch must be stressed when discussing the content. This is created by an interest in the historical narrative forming the Pentateuch's backbone and framework and into which the blocks of legal texts have been placed. A clue to this narrative's central role and importance is the fact that the Old Testament events most frequently cited in the New Testament as the background and preparation for God's work in Christ are precisely that sequence of divine acts from Abraham's call through the kingship of David. Summaries or 'confession' of this sequence of divine acts plays a central role in Scripture. The basic details confessing God's saving acts on behalf of His people could be illustrated thus:

i. God chose Abraham his descendants (Acts 13:17; Josh.24: 3) and promised them the land of Canaan (Deut. 6:23)

ii. Israel went down into Egypt (Acts 13:17; Josh. 24: 5-7; Deut. 6: 21ff; 28: 8)

iii. God brought Israel into Canaan as promised (Acts 13:19; Josh.24: 11-13; Deut. 6:23; 26: 9).

This is but the narrative backbone of the Pentateuch in miniature. The plan that unifies the different elements forming the building blocks of the Pentateuch includes: promise, election, deliverance, covenant, law and land. It is realistically observed that "the one element universally present and central to these credos … is the Exodus, representing Yahweh's deliverance and the historical realization of His election of Israel as His people" (Lasor, Hubbard, Bush, 1982, p. 55).

The Pentateuch has two major divisions: Genesis 1-11 and Genesis 12- Deuteronomy 34. The relation between them is one question and answer, problem and solution; the clue is Genesis 12: 3. This structure not only elucidates the binding unity of the Pentateuch but also reveals that the structure began stretches far beyond the Pentateuch itself. The end and fulfillment lie beyond Deuteronomy 34 – indeed beyond the Old Testament. It could be safely asserted that probably no where does the Old Testament set forth an ultimate solution to the universal problem which Genesis 1-11 so poignantly portrays. The Old Testament indeed does not arrive at full redemption. When the Old Testament ends, Israel is still looking for the final consummation when hope shall be fulfilled and promise become fact. The juncture of Genesis 10-11 and chapters 12ff., Is not only one of the most important places in the whole Old Testament but one of the most important in the entire Bible. Here begins the redemptive history that awaits the proclamation of the good news of God's new redemptive act in Jesus Christ; only then will be found the way in which the blessing of Abraham will bless all the families of the earth. The Pentateuch is truly open-ended, for the salvation history which commenced awaits the consummation in the Son of Abraham (Matt. 1: 1) who draws all people to Him (John 12:32) punctuating the alienation of humanity from God and from one another.


The purpose of the Pentateuch was a leading into the realization by God that He was the Creator and Sustainer of the universe as well as the Ruler of History. It testifies to God's saving acts, the central act being the exodus from Egypt. God invaded the consciousness of the Israelites and revealed Himself as the redeeming God. Knowledge of God as Redeemer subsequently led to a knowledge of Him as Creator; understanding the Lord as the God of grace consequently prompted an understanding as the God of nature after He displayed control over nature as evidenced in the plagues, the crossing of the Red Sea and sustenance in the wilderness. It must be stressed that God's grace was evident not only in deliverance and guidance, but in the giving of the law and the initiation of the covenant. Israel's supposed pledge of obedience, oath of loyalty to God and His will is her response. One must hasten to note that this response is a gift of God's grace. The Pentateuch stands or better still possesses a rich inner unity recording God's revelation in history and His Lordship over history and testifying to Israel's response and disobedience. It generally witnesses to God's holiness which "separates Him from men, and His gracious love, which binds Him to them on His terms" (New Bible Dictionary, 1962, p.909).


Although several themes could be identified between Genesis and Deuteronomy, unique but inter-related, intertwined and invaluable ones could be identified. These include election, creation, fall / sin, covenant, law and exodus. Israel was God's elect. According to Stott (1988), the Bible is "sacred history – the story of God's dealing with a particular people for a particular purpose" (p.45). They were convinced that God had done this for no other nation (Ps. 147: 20). Great thinkers of Greece (including Plato, Socrates and Aristotle) ​​are not the focus but scriptural record concentrates on men like Abraham, Moses, David, Isaiah and the prophets to whom the word of the Lord came, and on Jesus Christ, God's Word made flesh. Abraham's call has a present day significance to us and should not be slightly regarded as an event of the past. Election – God's special choice of individuals- basically contains two subsidiary features; promise and responsibility. Abraham is promised descendants, given the land of Canaan as his children's inheritance and promised a great name in the future. God's special favour was to rest not only on Abraham and his family but to all men through him (Gal. 3:29).

God's promises to Abraham therefore were not for the selfish enjoyment of a selected few but could benefit others if used responsibly. It is incontrovertible that God's choice of Israel has a missionary purpose. A covenant, in the Hebrew context, covered all human relationships and not a limited definition of a matter of legal documents and sealing-wax in the modern mind. This bond united people in mutual obligations. Naturally, people's relationship to God should be expressed in covenant terms. Covenant terms could be used to describe three unique occasions in the Pentateuch:

i. God's promises never again to destroy the world with a flood (Gen. 9: 9)

ii. God's promises to Abram (Gen. 15:18; 17: 4)

iii. The Sinai Covenant established with Moses and summarized in the 'book of the covenant' (Ex.24: 4).

It must be borne in mind that although covenants were generally between equals, religiously it denotes a relationship between Creator and a lesser partner. However, the theological significance of the covenant must be highlighted. Based on initiative of God and implying a new revelation of the Creator, it made moral and ritual demands upon the people.

Taylor (1973) realistically observes that "the idea of ​​law is central to the Pentateuch and … it gives its name to the book as a whole" (p.124). It basically covers the Ten Commandments (Decalogue – Ex. 20; Deut.5) and associates with these various collections of laws classified as:

i. The book of the Covenant (Ex. 21-23)

ii. The Holiness Code (Lev. 17:26)

iii. The Law of Deuteronomy (Deut. 12:26)

Since Israel was part of the Eastern Mediterranean culture and shared in the ideas and experience of her neighbours, several similarities could be noted especially with the Code of Hammurabi. The differences however made Israel's laws distinctive. They could be summarized thus:

i. Uncompromising monotheism (that is relating everything to the one true God)

ii. Remarkable concern for slaves, strangers, women and orphans (the underprivileged)

iii. Community spirit based on the covenant relationship shared by all Israel with the Lord

In a brilliant summary, Cornfeld (1961) observed that "Hebrew law appears from its earliest times to stand on a higher ethical level and postulates moral human relationship which do not seem to be equalled in other Near Eastern Legislations" (p.213). Israel must approach God with a due sense of His moral and spiritual distinctiveness. The elaborate sacrificial system generally found its fulfilment in the solitary sacrifice of Christ – the perfect Lamb of God- through whom sins are not only forgiven but atonement made for all men eternally (Heb. 10: 1-18).

The exodus must be put in proper perspective. Described in Exodus 1-12, the Jews view it as the great intervention or saving act of God which later generations reminisced. This miraculous intervention was God's act of victory of the gods displaying total supremacy. Recalled annually in the Feast of the Passover, subsequent generations were reminded that they were initially members of a slave community mercifully redeemed from bondage. They were encouraged to use this as a deterrent, especially when curses reward disobedience. The historical significance was definitive. God could repeat His initial act. In Isaiah 51: 9-11, Israel looked for a second exodus while in exile in Babylon.

The afore-mentioned themes are never submerged in the Pentateuch. Probably, the only other theme (which recurs in depressing regularity) is Israel's obstinate and persistent sinfulness. Among other things, they were slow to accept Moses as their deliverer, grumbled about hardship and desired to 'go back to Egypt'. Not even Moses was immune and was punished by not being allowed to lead God's people in the promised land.


Together, the five books trace Israel's origin from the earliest times, through the patriarchs; then the Exodus and Sinai periods prior to the entry to Canaan; they also contain much legal instruction. God's response to sin is consistently a blend of judgement and mercy. Beyond the immediate discipline of Adam and Eve, and confusion of tongues at Babel, God tempers justice with salvation. It is understandable therefore that in spite of man's path, God called Abraham to be the channel of grace and revelation to all mankind.


Childs, B. (1979). Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia (1964). New York: Dell Publishing Co.

Cornfeld, G. (1961). Adam to Daniel. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Everyman's Encyclopedia, Vol. 1. (1979). London: Dent and Sons.

Halley, HH (1962). Halley's Pocket Bible Handbook: An Abbreviated Bible Commentary. Minnesota:
Zondervan Publishing.

Knight, DA and GM Tucker (1985). The Hebrew Bible and its Modern Interpreters. Minnesota:
Fortress Press.

Lasor, WS, DA Hubbard and FW Bush (1982). Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form and
Background to the Old Testament. Michigan: Williams B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

The New Bible Dictionary (1962). London: The Inter-Varsity Fellowship.

NIV Study Bible (1984). Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House.

Stott, J. (1988). Understanding the Bible. London: Scripture Union.

Taylor, J. (1973). The Five Books. In The Lion Handbook to the Bible. Herts: Lion Publishing.


Source by Oliver Harding

How to Wear a Cross Body Bag


Cross body handbags are one of the most popular fashion trends in recent years, with this design being able to be dressed up or down depending on the occasion. There are also numerous high street and designer options in many different styles, which means that there really is a style that will suit everyone and fit all different types of budget too.

This kind of handbag, however, can be relatively difficult to style, with many people not knowing whether it is more suited for a day look or an evening look, or if it suits their particular body shape. Others can be concerned with how large the bag should be, or how low it should hang.

The first thing to bear in mind is that cross body handbags are a great practical option; that is to say they are much more about a blend of style and practicality rather than just a stylish accessory. These are the bags that you will take out shopping with you, or on a day out when you need your wallet, sunglasses, makeup, cardigan, your phone and a spare pair of ballerina flats.

Of course, these bags – like every type of bag – will vary in size and how much you can fit in them, but the fact remains that they are a practice absolution that can hold all your essential stuff and be easy to wear.

The golden rule to styling any bag to suit your body shape is to choose one that is in proportion to your body. This is, in fact, a golden rule for anything you wear on your body, but is especially true of these accessories as they make up an eye-catching part of your outfit.

If you are petite in size, it is best to therefore go for cross body handbags that also smaller in size, so you are not overpowered by a large bag that can make you look like you are labored with a mail man's sack! Larger ladies can wear larger designs, as this will put their figures into proportion, whereas smaller bags can make them look larger by comparison.

Although many are concerned that their bag simply holds all of their things rather than puts their body in proportion, this is something to bear in mind if you are styling an outfit that you want to look great in, perhaps for a special occasion or a date .

It is important to consider how you wear your cross body too, as straps that are too long can make the item very uncomfortable and impractical to wear. On the other hand, straps that are too short can be both uncomfortable and stylish in their own way.

The solution to this is searching for a bag that suits your height. Ideally bags should hang by your hip or above, with one of the most popular looks at the moment involving the bag hanging by the wearer's midriff. If the strap is too long, however, there are several things that you can do to remedy the situation.

One of these is to alter the strap of the bag yourself, although this will require some skills and you can risk ruining the bag. Look online for tutorials from fashions who can give you step by step instructions on this depending on the material that your bag is made from.

Another solution – and an extremely trendy one – is to simply tie a knot in the top of a strap that is too long beforehand it. This knot is actually a style statement in itself, and makes a great addition to a casual or grungy outfit.

Our final tip for styling cross body handbags is remembering to match your outfit with the level of elegance that your bag has. A school like satchel can look great as a casual day look, but will look out of place on an evening out. For the latter occasion however, a delicate cross body adorned with chains or crystals can look very fitting.


Source by Nanci Miller

Moving to Australia – Top Tips For South Africans


Do not get lost

GPS's or SatNavs are becoming very popular as a means of finding your way around when you are driving. They retail from about $ 200.00. If you have already bought a GPS in South Africa, you can download all the Australia maps for about $ 100.00. A map book or "Street Directory" costs under $ 30.00. These are invaluable for getting to know the suburbs and layout of your city, even if you have a GPS. The two most popular ones are Gregorys and UBD, both produced by Universal publishers. "Whereis" and "Google maps" are web based route planners. They are useful when planning a trip to check the distance and how long it will take.

Protect yourself from the sun

Australia has a very high rate of skin cancer. Even with all the warnings a lot of people expose themselves to too much sun in the middle of the day. Primary schools have a "no hat no play" policy for all students. The Cancer Council has a wide range of products to help prevent damage from the sun. You will see a lot of kids wearing rash vests (rashies) on the beach and at swimming pools.


If you bring an older TV from SA it might not work. Although Australia also uses the analogue PAL system, the audio signal is a different frequency so you will get a picture but no sound. TV channels in Australia are also broadcast in a digital signal. (Analogue is to be phased out by the end of 2013). To receive this signal you can buy a digital set top box for about $ 80, and as long as your TV has an audio and video RCA input you can connect it up. The picture is superior because it is digital: no ghosting or fuzziness. You need a decent aerial on the roof, but most houses and apartments already have one. Most new LCD or Plasma TVs in Australia come with a built in digital tuner but check this if you decide to buy one.


Your normal FM / AM radio that you bring with will work perfectly. As of August 2009, Digital radio has been launched in the major cities. This means that if you have a digital radio, even the AM stations such as ABC Sydney can be received in digital format, so the quality is much better. They are still expensive, (prices start $ 150.00 around) but prices should start coming down in the short term.

Filling up with petrol

There are no petrol pump attendants in most metropolitan areas, it's all self-serve. Some smaller towns still have pump attendants. It is a bit daunting at first, but take someone who is experienced the first time you go to fill up. Once you have filled up, remember the number of the pump, go inside to the counter and pay. You can pay with cash or card. There is no price standardisation on petrol. The price fluctuates throughout the week, and in Sydney it is generally cheaper on Tuesdays and early Wednesday mornings. The service stations ( "servo's") also have shops similar to those in South Africa where you can buy basic foodstuffs, necessities (like chocolate) and the newspapers. The large supermarket chains like Coles and Woolworths also own about 80% of the petrol stations around Sydney. They have fuel discount offers to encourage you to shop at their grocery stores then buy petrol at their outlets. If you spend more than $ 30.00 at the Supermarket at any one time, you get a discount voucher which entitles you to a 4c per litre discount when you pay for your petrol. On Tuesdays all around Sydney you will see cars queuing right into the street at Woolworths and Coles / Shell petrol stations, and the independents are almost empty. Do not get sucked into this mindset. Even if you have a large car like a Ford Falcon or Holden Commodore with a 70 L tank, and even if you were filling up from empty, you would only save 70 x 4c = $ 2.80. If you fill up twice a month like me, you would only $ save 5.60 a month! If you drive a large 4×4 with a 100 L tank, you would save $ 4.00 if you filled up from empty. With a small car and a 45 L tank you would only save $ 1.80. In my opinion it's not worth the hassle to queue, I prefer to go to an outlet that is not as busy and pay a bit more.

Water usage

Depending on the level of restrictions, you may or may not be allowed to water your garden with a hand held hose and a trigger type nozzle. In Sydney at the time of writing, level 3 restrictions are in force so hand-held hoses can be used for gardens on specific days before 10 am and after 4pm. Buckets can be used at any time. You can be fined if you are caught watering out of permitted hours. Again, depending on the water restrictions in your area you may be allowed to wash your car with a hose, as long has it has a trigger type nozzle. There are commercial car wash bays where you can wash your car yourself, or the automated kind that is common in South Africa.

Doing your Washing

If you come from a city like Johannesburg where the air is relatively dry, you may find humidity a problem even in Sydney. (Brisbane is much worse, more like Durban). A clothes drying rack and a tumble drier are essential. Products such as "Damp Rid" to be very useful to put in cupboards to absorb any excess moisture and prevent musty smells.

Furniture and appliances

Try to bring all your own furniture, (as long as it is free of wood borers and other pests) but do not worry too much about small appliances such as toasters, steam irons and kettles. They are relatively cheap because of the strong Australian Dollar, and because many of the appliances are made in China. Appliances made in Italy or Germany cost a bit more. Washing machines, fridges and tumble driers cost a little more but are still good value. The voltage in Australia is the same as in South Africa, but the plugs are different. Bring a few multiplugs with you from SA, then replace the South African style plug on the end of the cable with an Australian one. This way, you can plug your old appliances into the multiplug without having to change all of your plugs at once. When you are more settled in you can start changing the plugs on individual appliances.

Daylight saving

This is a great concept that is observed in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and the Australian Capital Territory and has been synchronised across these states. Western Australia began a three year trial of daylight saving in December 2006 but in a recent referendum, people of WA (mainly the rural population) voted overwhelmingly against it becoming permanent. Queensland and the Northern Territory do not observe daylight saving. Daylight saving starts on the first Sunday in October and ends on the first Sunday in April. The clocks are advanced one hour in October then put back one hour in April. It takes a bit of getting used to at first, but the benefit is that in summer it only gets dark around 8.00 pm, so people can go to the beach after work, play outdoor sport, work in the garden and so on.


Most councils have very good public libraries with many resources. Once you register you can access your account online and reserve or renew books. Many libraries have a type of "post box" outside so that you can return books after hours. Most libraries have computers with internet access and some are now "WiFi" enabled so you can bring your own laptop if it has a built in wireless device.


Many of the main arterial roads in the major cities have tolls. Most toll roads have done away with manned toll booths: they only have an automatic toll system. It is a very good idea to get an E tag. The device sticks to the inside of your windscreen and is linked to your registration number. You can apply online and the device will be posted to you (Oh … did I mention how reliable and secure Australia Post is?). When you first apply for one, you pay a deposit and an initial "top up". When the balance drops to a certain value it is topped up from your nominated credit card or current account. In other words when you drive past a toll sensor, your tag beeps and the value of the toll is debited from your account automatically. You get a pdf statement emailed monthly to you.

Very first world!


Source by Vic Chatterton